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Start GMO GMO a zdrowie GMO a zdrowie zwierząt Artykuły naukowe

Artykuły naukowe

GMO - GMO a zdrowie zwierząt
1. Ewen SW, Pusztai A. Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1353-4.

2. Vecchio L, Cisterna B, Malatesta M, Martin TE, Biggiogera M. Ultrastructural analysis of testes from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Eur J Histochem. 2004 Oct-Dec;48(4):448-54.

Abstract

We have considered the possible effects of a diet containing genetically modified (GM) soybean on mouse testis. This organ, in fact, is a well known bioindicator and it has already been utilized, for instance, to monitor pollution by heavy metals. In this preliminary study, we have focussed our attention on Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes by means of immunoelectron microscopy. Our results point out that the immunolabelling for Sm antigen, hnRNPs, SC35 and RNA Polymerase II is decreased in 2 and 5 month-old GM-fed mice, and is restored to normal at 8 months. In GM-fed mice of all ages considered, the number of perichromatin granules is higher and the nuclear pore density lower. Moreover, we found enlargements in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum in GM-fed mice Sertoli cells. A possible role played by traces of the herbicide to which the soybean is resistant is discussed.

Badania sugerują, że możliwy jest wpływ diety zawierającej soję GM na jądra badanych myszy. Organ ten jest dobrym indykatorem wcześniej stosowanym np. w monitorowaniu zanieczyszczeń metalami ciężkimi. We wstępnym badaniu skupiono się na komórkach Sertoliego, spermatogoniach, spermatocytach (mikroskopia immunoelektronowa). Wyniki wskazują, że spada immunolabelling u 2 i 5-miesięcznych myszy. Przywrócenie do normy jest możliwe po 8 miesiącach. Możliwa rola śladowych pozostałości herbicydu (na który soja GM jest odporna) jest nadal dyskutowana.

3. Sagstad A, Sanden M, Haugland O, Hansen AC, Olsvik PA, Hemre GI. J: Evaluation of stress- and immune-response biomarkers in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different levels of genetically modified maize (Bt maize), compared with its near-isogenic parental line and a commercial suprex maize. Fish Dis. 2007, 30(4): 201-12.

4. Magaña-Gómez JA, Cervantes GL, Yepiz-Plascencia G, de la Barca AM. Pancreatic response of rats fed genetically modified soybean. J Appl Toxicol. 2008 Mar;28(2):217-26.

5. Kiliç A, Akay MT (2008). A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food Chem Toxicol. 46: 1164-70.

Abstract

For the last ten years, in accordance with the increased use of genetically modified (GM) foods for human and livestock, a large number of feeding studies have been carried out. However, the evidence is still far from proving whether the long-term consumption of GM foods poses a possible danger for human or animal health. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of transgenic corn on the rats that were fed through three generations with either GM corn or its conventional counterpart. Tissue samples of stomach, duodenum, liver and kidney were obtained for histopathological examinations. The average diameter of glomeruli, thickness of renal cortex and glomerular volume were calculated and number of affected animals/number of examined animals for liver and kidney histopathology were determined. Amounts of urea, urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin and globulin were determined; enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and amylase were measured in serum samples. No statistically significant differences were found in relative organ weights of rats within groups but there were some minimal histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Changes in creatinine, total protein and globulin levels were also determined in biochemical analysis.

6. Dona A, Arvanitoyannis IS (2009). Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 49:164-75.

7. Zhu Y, Li D, Wang F, Yin J, Jin H. Nutritional assessment and fate of DNA of soybean meal from roundup ready or conventional soybeans using rats. Arch Anim Nutr. 2004, 58(4): 295-310

9. Brasil, F.B., Soares, L.L., Faria, T.S., Boaventura, G.T., Sampaio, F.J., Ramos, C.F. 2009. The impact of dietary organic and transgenic soy on the reproductive system of female adult rat. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 292, 587–94.

Abstract
The goal of this article was to compare the effects of a prolonged use of organic and transgenic soy on the lipid profile and ovary and uterus morphology. Wistar rats were fed three different diets from weaning until sacrifice at 15 months of age. The three diets were: casein-based diet control group (CG), organic soy-based diet group (OSG), or transgenic soybased diet group (GMSG). There were no differences in food consumption or in the diet isoflavone components among the groups. Compared with the CG diet, both the OSG and GMSG diets were associated with significant reductions in body weight, serum triglycerides, and cholesterol (P < 0.05) (CG = 406 ± 23.1; 104.3 ±13.2; 119.9 ± 7.3 GMSG = 368 ±17.6; 60.3 ± 4.6; 83.3 ± 5.7 OSG = 389 ± 23.5; 72.3 ± 12.5; 95.5 ± 8.0, respectively). The volume density of endometrial glandular epithelium was greater in the GMSG group (29.5 ± 7.17, P < 0.001) when compared with the CG (18.5 ±7.4) and OSG (20.3 ±10.6) groups. The length density of endometrial glandular epithelium was shorter in both GMSG (567.6 ± 41.1) and OSG (514.8 ±144.5) diets compared with the CG (P < 0.05) diet. GMSG also resulted in reduced follicle number and increased corpus luteum number compared to the OSG or CG diets (P < 0.05). In summary, both GMSG and OSG diets resulted in decreased body weight and lower serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and alterations in uterine and ovarian morphology were also observed. The prolonged use of soybased diets and their relation to reproductive health warrants further investigation.


Celem artykułu było porównanie skutków długotrwałego spożycia soi ekologicznej i soi GM (wpływ na profil lipidowy, oraz morfologię jajników i macicy). Szczury Wistar karmione były 3 różnymi dietami: 1.kontrolna-kazeinowa (CG), 2. oparta na organicznej soi (OSG), 3. oparta na soi GM (GMSG). W porównaniu z dietą CG, zarówno dieta OSG jak i GMSG były związane ze znacznym spadkiem masy ciała, stężenia trójglicerydów i cholesterolu. M.in. przy diecie GMSG nastąpiło zmniejszenie liczby pęcherzyków i ciałka żółtego w porównaniu do OSG czy CG. Długotrwałe spożycie soi i jej wpływ na reprodukcję wymaga dalszych badań.


Przedstawiciele koncernów biotechnologicznych (Monsanto i in.) zazwyczaj stosują w krytyce tego typu prac nieuprawnione stwierdzenie, że zaobserwowane zmiany „nie mają znaczenia biologicznego”.